Cruising Through Turbulence – An evaluation study for GTZ-Germany

One of the effective Implementation strategies

Tools used

IRDP activities

Out puts

Management and coordination and external factors.


The various methodologies applied by different sectors of the program were very effective as they were fine tuned according to the requirements and needs from time to time. For instance the Target Group’s participation in implementation of the community

schemes enabled the disadvantaged groups to learn about the technical and well as the management aspects of infrastructure development, which led to a feeling of ownership within the communities and ensured maintenance and sustainability – even extension of infrastructure schemes through community based organizations.

The tools used in the sectors of agriculture and forestry were also highly successful. The communities were enable to realise their potential of these sectors. Effective land use planning was one of the many tools used in this regard. Through cooperation of traditional and use managers (Jarga), VOs and the concerned government departments, the process of land use planning gained momentum.

Group Capital formation for rural financing was yet another effective tool which made the communities aware about the importance and potential of their own financial capacities.


The most important aspect of the effectiveness of different IRDP sectors is their inter-relatedness and interdependence. The activities of one sector directly influenced the capacities in the other. The increased agriculture out put, for instance, was not only due to the improved techniques of agriculture, but also due to the improved health of the community members, which was facilitated through infrastructure schemes. 

Activities and outputs:

By and large, the cooperating village organizations, RDOs and RDC are actively participating in project identification, planning, implementation and maintenance. Direct IRDP cooperation with the VOs was long phased out and the support is now being provided by the intermediary organizations, most of which have consolidated their position with the support of IRDP.

Improving village infrastructure was the most important activity that kept the groups together. As many VOs have been established along traditional, partly already existing institutional line. Groups are likely to continue at least their traditional activities after the withdrawal of IRDP. According to the community members, the cooperation with IRDP has resulted in groups realizing their financial and human resources ad potential. As a result of working with IRDP and undertaking joint activities, they have become more aware of the need for broad based participation of all members supported development processes independently such as: scheme maintenance, operating village development fund or natural resource management activities. The capacity of VOs to engage in new or innovative activities vary strongly, depending on the capacity and human as well as financial resources of the group.

The program introduced a very useful approach of capital formation through the “village development fund.” Under this program, the VO members are supposed to gather joint savings instead of individual savings by depositing their money in the village development funds. Once a sizable amount has been collected, the interested/needy VO members can apply for obtaining a loan from the VDF. UP to December 1999, some 120 VOs had operationalized the VDF which contained 3.681 million rupees. These funds are kept in circulation and by December 1999 almost 3.251 million rupees were reinvested in various business and income generating activities for further multiplication of the available resources.

NRM activities were particularly very successful. Here the ability of the village organizations to operate through traditional decision making Unit became an important ingredient for success. Decision to close off areas for communal grazing, firewood collection and other human and animal activities could be easily enforced once a joint decision had been taken. The development of private game reserves based on agreements with the Khans as well as the game department ensured that the community will benefit from these measures. Once again, the income generated from these activities is designed to flow into the village development  proved to be very successful, as evidenced by other non-IRDP villages who are beginning to replicate the process.